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Accueil du site > Articles > Bibliographie > Revues > Revue Autism mai 2008
Revue Autism mai 2008

 Revue Autism (May 2008)
Associative learning of pictures and words by low-functioning children with autism / Melissa ALLEN PREISSLER in Autism (12-3, May 2008)
Résumé :
This research investigates whether children with autism learn picture, word and object relations as associative pairs or whether they understand such relations as referential. In Experiment 1, children were taught a new word (e.g. `whisk’) repeatedly paired with a novel picture. When given the picture and a previously unseen real whisk and asked to indicate a whisk, children with autism, unlike typically developing peers matched on receptive language, associated the word with the picture rather than the object. Subsequent experiments respectively confirmed that neither a bias for selecting pictures nor perseverative responding accounted for these results. Taken together, these results suggest that children with autism with cognitive difficulties are learning picture—word and picture—object relations via an associative mechanism and have difficulty understanding the symbolic nature of pictures.

Brief report : Inhibition of return in young people with autism and Asperger’s disorder / Nicole J. RINEHART in Autism (12-3, May 2008)
Résumé :
The aim of this study was to investigate whether the superior search abilities observed in autism/Asperger’s disorder may in part be a consequence of a more pronounced inhibition of return (IOR). Contrary to our prediction, IOR in individuals with autism was comparable to the matched comparison group. However, the autism group committed more false alarm responses than the matched comparison group ; this may reflect a possible inhibitory deficit, or suggest that individuals with autism rely more on probabilities to determine their behavioural responses. There was a borderline-significant trend (p = 0.052) to indicate that IOR may be more pronounced in individuals with Asperger’s disorder. In contrast to the autism group, the Asperger’s disorder group had a pattern of false alarm responses similar to that of the comparison group. The findings further inform Minshew’s complex information processing theory which seeks to establish which areas of neuropsychological functioning are preserved and deficit in autism.
Recognition of biological motion in children with autistic spectrum disorders / Carole PARRON in Autism (12-3, May 2008)
Résumé :
It is widely accepted that autistic children experience difficulties in processing and recognizing emotions. Most relevant studies have explored the perception of faces. However, context and bodily gestures are also sources from which we derive emotional meanings. We tested 23 autistic children and 23 typically developing control children on their ability to recognize point-light displays of a person’s actions, subjective states and emotions. In a control task, children had to recognize point-light displays of everyday objects. The children with autism only differed from the control children in their ability to name the emotional point-light displays. This suggests that children with autism can extract complex meanings from bodily movements but may be less sensitive to higher-order emotional information conveyed by human movement. The results are discussed in the context of a specific deficit in emotion perception in children with autism.
A comparison of contexts for assessing joint attention in toddlers on the autism spectrum / Elizabeth M. ROOS in Autism (12-3, May 2008)
Résumé :
Children on the autism spectrum often demonstrate atypical joint attention, leading some researchers to consider joint attention defecits a core feature of the autism spectrum. Structured measures, such as the Early Social Communication Scales (ESCS), are commonly used to provide a metric of joint attention. To explore the assessment of joint attention in multiple contexts, we implemented an alternative system for coding joint attention behaviors. We compared initiation of joint attention (IJA) and response to joint attention (RJA) behaviors coded from naturalistic examiner—child play samples with similar IJA and RJA behaviors elicited within the structured ESCS protocol. Participants were 20 toddlers on the autism spectrum. Levels of IJA and RJA within the two assessment contexts were significantly and positively correlated, providing support for the use of naturalistic sampling of joint attention skills as a viable alternative, or supplement, to structured measures.
Acetaminophen (paracetamol) use, measles-mumps-rubella vaccination, and autistic disorder : The results of a parent survey / Stephen T. SCHULTZ in Autism (12-3, May 2008)
Résumé :
The present study was performed to determine whether acetaminophen (paracetamol) use after the measles-mumps-rubella vaccination could be associated with autistic disorder. This case-control study used the results of an online parental survey conducted from 16 July 2005 to 30 January 2006, consisting of 83 children with autistic disorder and 80 control children. Acetaminophen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was significantly associated with autistic disorder when considering children 5 years of age or less (OR 6.11, 95% CI 1.42—26.3), after limiting cases to children with regression in development (OR 3.97, 95% CI 1.11—14.3), and when considering only children who had post-vaccination sequelae (OR 8.23, 95% CI 1.56—43.3), adjusting for age, gender, mother’s ethnicity, and the presence of illness concurrent with measles-mumps-rubella vaccination. Ibuprofen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was not associated with autistic disorder. This preliminary study found that acetaminophen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was associated with autistic disorder.
Parents’perceptions of communication with professionals during the diagnosis of autism / Lisa A. OSBORNE in Autism (12-3, May 2008)
Résumé :
In order to obtain the views of parents concerning their perceptions of the process of getting a diagnosis of an autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) for their child, 15 focus groups were conducted across a range of locations in England. These groups were split into parents of preschool-, primary- and secondary-aged children who had recently received an ASD diagnosis. At the time of diagnosis, most of the parents wished for a quicker and easier process. In particular, they would prefer the procedure to have a more coherent structure and content. They also requested greater professional training about ASD, in particular, regarding the information that professionals possess, and the interpersonal skills of some professionals. The idea of broad information sheets to be provided to parents at the time of diagnosis would be of value, especially to combat negative information provided from other sources.

    Association partenaire d'Autisme France